Evolution Group


Zsolt Pénzes
Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science and Informatics, University of Szeged
6726 Szeged, Közép fasor 52. Hungary
Phone: 36 62 546942
E-mail: penzes_at_bio.u-szeged.hu


Evolution of inquiline gall wasps

Of the various forms of insect herbivory, the most intimate and complex form is gall induction. Galls represent discrete microhabitats that support relatively closed communities of specialist inhabitants. With around 1400 described species, gall wasps (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera) constitute the second largest group of galling insects, and they induce some of the most structurally complex and diverse galls known. A number of species can not induce galls themselves but develop inside the galls of other cynipids: these are called inquilines. Our main interest is the evolution of the latter group, especially the tribe Synergini associated to Fagaceae host plants.



  • Stone G.N., White S.C., Csóka G., Melika G., Mutun S., Pénzes Z., Sadeghi S.E., Schönrogge K., Tavakoli M., Nicholls J.A. (2017) Tournament ABC analysis of the western Palaearctic population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus. Molecular ecology 26:6685-6703
  • Chang T.-T., Mikó I., Nicholls J.A., Schwéger Sz., Yang M.-M., Stone G.N., Sinclair F., Bozsó M., Melika G., Pénzes Zs. (2016) New Dryocosmus Giraud species associated with Cyclobalanopsis and non-Quercus host plants from the Eastern Palaearctic (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini). Journal of Hymenoptera Research 53:77-162
  • Schwéger S., Melika G., Tang C.-T., Yang M.-M., Stone G.N., Nicholls J.A., Sinclair F., Hearn J., Bozsó M., Pénzes Zs (2015) New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Saphonecrus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) from the Eastern Palaearctic, with a re-appraisal of known species world-wide. Zootaxa 4054:1-84
  • Schwéger S., Melika G., Tang C.-T., Bihari P., Bozsó M., Stone G. N., Nicholls J. A., Pénzes Zs. (2015) New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Synergus (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) from the Eastern Palaearctic. Zootaxa 3999:451-497
  • Bozsó M., Chang T.-T., Pénzes Zs, Yang M.-M., Bihari P., Pujade-Villar J., Schwéger Sz., Melika G. (2015) A new genus of cynipid inquiline, Lithosaphonecrus Tang , Melika and Bozsó (Hymenoptera:Cynipidae:Synergini) with description of four new species from Taiwan and China. Insect Systematics & Evolution 46:79-114
  • Bozsó M., Pénzes Zs, Bihari P., Schwéger S., Tang C.-T., Yang M.-M., Pujade-Villar J., Melika G, (2014) Molecular phylogeny of the inquiline cynipid wasp genus Saphonecrus Dalla Torre and Kieffer, 1910 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini). Plant Protection Quarterly 29:26-31
  • Seltmann K.C., Pénzes Zs, Yoder M.J., Bertone M.A., Deans A.R. (2013) Utilizing Descriptive Statements from the Biodiversity Heritage Library to Expand the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology. PLOS ONE 8:e55674
  • Fülöp D., Mikó I., Seltmann K., Pénzes Zs., Melika G. (2013) The description of Alloxysta chinensis, a new Charipinae species from China (Hymenoptera, Figitidae). Zootaxa 3637:394-400
  • Melika G., Tang C.T., Yang M.M., Bihari P., Bozsó M., Pénzes Zs (2012) New species of cynipid inquilines of the genus Ufo Melika & Pujade-Villar, 2005 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) Zootaxa 3478:143-163
  • Bihari P., Sipos B., Melika G., Fehér B., Somogyi K., Stone GN, Pénzes Zs (2011) Western Palearctic phylogeography of an inquiline gallwasp: Synergus umbraculus Olivier 1791 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini). Biol J Linn Soc 102:750-764
  • Somogyi K, Sipos B, Pénzes Zs, Andó I (2010) A conserved gene cluster as a putative functional unit in insect innate immunity. FEBS Letters 584:4375-4378
  • Ács Z, Challis R, Bihari P, Pénzes Zs, Blaxter M, Hayward A, Melika G, Pujade-Villar J, Nieves-Aldrey J-L, Schönrogge K. Stone G.N Phylogeny and DNA Barcoding of Inquiline Oak Gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae) of the Western Palaearctic. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55:210-225
  • Melika G, Pujade-Villar J, Abe Y, Tang CT, Nicholls J, Wachi N, Ide T, Yang MM, Penzes Z, Csoka Gy, Stone GN (2010) Palaearctic oak gallwasps galling oaks (Quercus) in the section Cerris: re-appraisal of generic limits, with descriptions of new genera and species (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) Zootaxa 2470:1-79
  • Pénzes Zs, Melika G, Bozsóki Z, Bihari P, Mikó I, Tavakoli M, Pujade-Villar J, Fehér B, Fülöp D, Szabó K, Bozsó M, Sipos B, Somogyi K, Stone GN (2009) A taxonomic and phylogenetic re-appraisal of the inquiline wasps of the genus Synophrus Hartig, 1843 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini). Systematic Entomology 34:688-711
  • Melika G, Pujade-Villar J, Stone GN, Fülöp D, Pénzes Zs (2009) New species of cynipid gallwasps of the genus Plagiotrochus Mayr, 1881 from Nepal and Jordan (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 55:263-274
  • Tavakoli M, Melika G., Sadeghi S.E., Pénzes Zs, Assareh M.A., Atkinson R., Bechtold M, Mikó I., Zargaran M.R., Aligolizade D., Barimani H., Bihari P, Pirozi F, Fülöp D., Somogyi K, Challis R., Preuss S, Nicholls J, Stone G.N. (2008) New species of oak gallwaps from Iran (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini). Zootaxa 1699:1-64
  • Ács, Z., Melika, G., Pénzes, Zs., Pujade-Villar, J. and Stone, G. N. (2007): The phylogenetic relationships between Dryocosmus - Chilaspis and allied genera of oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae: Cynipini) Syst. Entomol. 32:70-80
  • Melika, G., Choi, J-Y., Pujade-Villar, J., Pénzes, Zs., & Fülöp, D. (2007) A new species of inquiline cynipid of the genus Ufo Melika & Pujade-Villar, 2005 from Korea (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini). Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 10:197-200
  • Sadeghi, S. E., Melika, G., Pujade-Villar, J., Pénzes, Zs., Ács, Z., Bechtold, M., Assareh, M.H. , Tavakoli, M., Yarmand, H., Askary, H., Stone, G.N. Azizkhani, E., Zargaran, M. R., Aligolizade, D. Barimani, H. & Dordaei A. A. (2006) Oak cynipid gall inquilines of Iran (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini), with description of new species. J. Entomol. Soc. Iran 25:15-50
  • Melika, G., Ros-Farré, P., Pénzes, Zs., Ács, Z. and Pujade-Villar, J. (2005) Ufo abei Melika et Pujade-Villar (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Synergini) new genus and new species from Japan. Acta Zool. Acad. Sci. Hung. 51: 313-327

  Last modified: 01/03/2018